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Pachinko and pachislot (slot machines often in pachinko parlours) is a big business in Japan. It is estimated that over $200 billion is spent on these games that are technically not considered gambling. A good introduction is David Slotz's Pachinko Nation. Here are some other references:

  • Brooks, G., Ellis, T. & Lewis, C., 2008. Pachinko: A Japanese addiction? International Gambling Studies, 8 (2), 193-205.
  • Economist, The, 2006. Rules of the game: The Japanese authorities attempt to clean up the pachinko business. 27 July.
  • Entertainment Business Institute, 2008. Pachinko sanka jittai chōsa [The survey of pachinko participation]. Tokyo: Entertainment Business Institute.
  • Manzenreiter, W., 1998. Time, space, and money: Cultural dimensions of the ‘pachinko’ game. In: Linhart, S. & Fruhstuck, S., eds. The culture of Japan as seen through its leisure. Albany: SUNY Press, 359-81.
  • Satō, H., 2007. Pachinko no keizaigaku [Pachinko economics]. Tokyo: Tōyōkeizai Shinpōsha.
  • Slotz, David. Pachinko Nation. Japan Society.
  • Takiguchi and Rosenthal. Problem Gambling in Japan: A Social Perspective -
  • Tanioka, I., 2000. Pachinko and the Japanese society: Legal and socio-economic considerations. Osaka: Institute of Amusement Industries, Osaka University of Commerce.
  • Thompson, W. N., Tanioka, I. & Fujimoto, K., 2005. Pachinko players in Japan: Subculture, cult, or ordinary citizens at leisure? Gaming Law Review, 9 (6), 592-98.

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